Commentary On The 6-pack Toxicology Testing For LBAM Eradication Pesticide Products
Ann M. Haiden, D.O.
November 25, 2008
In 2007, the residents of Monterey and Santa Cruz counties were aerially sprayed with Checkmate OLR-F and LBAM-F pheromone pesticide. Over 600 health complaints ensued, but after reviewing the complaints, OEHHA (The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment) determined that they could not link the complaints to the spray because of the inadequacy of the data. Subsequently, a “6-pack” of tests on the pheromone pesticide product were performed. These results have finally been reported by the CDPR, OEHHA and CDPH. Individuals with health complaints and reporting clinicians still have not been interviewed.
The acute effect six-pack tests performed do not provide what is needed to test for the hazards of products meant to be used in a timed-release, chronic and repetitive fashion on a genetically diverse group of people with multiple preexisting health conditions. The authors of a consensus statement released on November 4, 2008, A Review of Acute Toxicity Studies Results on the Light Brown Apple Moth Pheromone Active Ingredient and Four LBAM Pheromone Products, admit to some of these deficiencies.1 Yet, the tests do bring to light real possible dangers.
The consensus authors bring forth several potential drawbacks of the results: the small number of animals, multiple exposure routes for people as compared to in the tests, potential differences in sensitivity between people and the animals, the genetically similar…
To see the entire commentary, please download the PDF by clicking here.
The Light Brown Apple Moth Aerial Spray Campaign: The Health Hazards of
Particles, Toxins, Inflammatory Cascades and Genomic Predisposition
Ann M. Haiden, D.O.
May 15, 2008
There are health safety concerns about the use of aerosolized Checkmate LBAM-F spray as a mechanism to address the Light Brown Apple Moth in the San Francisco Bay Area that have not been addressed or investigated.
The ingredients in the proposed Checkmate LBAM-F spray and the spray capsules are a health concern. Neither has been tested in humans. Some of the ingredients, individually, are know to be toxic to humans or animals.
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and 2-hydroxy-4-n-octylbenzophenone are of particular concern. BHT is used in animal studies to induce lung damage and cancer in areas of the respiratory system that are reachable by the planned spray. BHT is activated into a more potent toxin and then cleared by the major detoxification enzymes cytochrome P450 and glutathione-S-transferase, which are variable in the population.  The effects of inhaled BHT in humans have not been studied. The benzophenone in the spray has not been tested but other benzophenones have been found to be stronger endocrine disturbers than bisphenol-A, a very concerning chemical.
The capsule particle size and how it interacts in the human respiratory system is a known health hazard.[3,4] The urea particles in the spray can be expected to reach areas of the lung that can cause damage. Further, the particles and the chemicals they carry can cause damage in the nasal passages and more proximal respiratory tract.
There is a general lack of information about the other ingredients in the spray and any characteristics that may exist when the ingredients are combined , making it difficult to make informed decisions about their safety. What we do know is concerning because of the emerging knowledge about how potential chemical toxins interface with individual human biochemistry.
Toxins and noxious particles can set off complex cascades of regulators and inflammation that lead to disease and even cancer. Individual capacity to detoxify toxins varies, making some of the population more vulnerable to harm. When looked at from this 21st century perspective, the spray can conceivably be expected to cause a wide variety of health problems, ranging from increased cardiorespiratory illness to hormone related illness such as breast, reproductive and thyroid illness and even cancers.
The Checkmate LBAM-F spray is reported to contain the following ingredients: water, (E)-11tetradecen-l-yl acetate (pheromone), (E,E)-9,11 tetradecadien-1-yl acetate (pheromone), ammonium phosphate, 1,2-benzisothiazol-3-one, 2-hydroxy-4-n-octylbenzophenone, cross linked polyurea polymer, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), polyvinyl alcohol, tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride and sodium phosphate.
The pheromone component is synthetically derived. In this discussion, it will not be differentiated from inert ingredients in keeping with the scientific evidence that both inert and active ingredients can have biologic effects. 
Particulate matter is a known health risk. Studies have shown increased mortality from exposure to particulate air pollution from cardiovascular and respiratory disease. 
There is the issue of the chemical constituents, alone and in combination, of the proposed spray and their known behavior in biologic systems. There is the lack of study in humans of those constituents, particularly via the proposed aerosolized polymer capsule delivery method. And, there is concern, derived from the accumulating evidence, that individual genetic variation and epigenetics are intricately related to how substances are processed by humans, and vary from person to person.
Thus, while the average of a population may not be adversely affected by an environmental chemical or particulate insult at all, or only at higher doses, individuals with less tolerant genetic predispositions may be more easily affected. Furthermore, since these predispositions are normal variations, they can affect significant percentages of a population. Therefore, this phenomenon should be taken into consideration when making decisions about any substance that will be applied, as the aerial spray program will be. Individuals who are already known to be at increased risk include infants and children, the elderly, and those with respiratory, cardiovascular or cardiopulmonary conditions and people with pre-existing environmental illness.
Lastly, any decision that is made must take into consideration future effects of the spray. We now know that exposure to substances of many types can have effects that become apparent only at a future time, such as hormone disruption, developmental defects, lung disease or cancer. Reliance on short-term symptoms, or lack thereof, as the major determinants of safety is misguided given our current, and growing, knowledge base.
Genetics, Detoxification and Biotransformation
Progress in the understanding of the inter-relationship between environmental exposures and illness manifestations is in its fledgling stages. Nonetheless, much has been discovered and patterns are becoming apparent.
We now know that each person carries within them a collection of genetic polymorphisms, or variations, that code for a wide variety of biochemical enzymes and proteins. Genetic susceptibility appears to be greater at low dose. Furthermore, there is an interconnected web of hormonal and inflammatory feedback mechanisms, with complex systems of receptors, transporters and kinases at play in health and disease. In addition, we have learned that genetics is not as simple as once thought, and that epigenetics may be even more important and immediate in regards to human health. 
Humans process substances and toxins for neutralization and removal via a two step detoxification process….
To see the entire paper, please download the PDF by clicking here.